Dr. Jonathan Crane, also known as The Scarecrow, is a DC Comics supervillain and an enemy of Batman. Created by Batman creators Bill Finger and Bob Kane, he first appeared in World's Finest Comics #3 (Fall 1941). His scarecrow costume, lanky appearance and surname were inspired by Ichabod Crane of the horror fable "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow".
The Scarecrow is an overly-obessive and deranged ex-professor of psychology who uses a variety of drugs and psychological tactics to use the fears and phobias of his adversaries. He does not commit his crimes for wealth, but rather as a form of "research" to further study the effects of fear on humans (later, he does it to satisfy his own psychopathic desires), making the innocent citizens of Gotham his unwilling guinea pigs.
The Scarecrow made only two appearances in the 1940's. Batman writers of the 1960's revived him and he has since consistently appeared in Batman comic books. He was featured several times in the Emmy-winning 1990's cartoon Batman: The Animated Series, where he was first played by Henry Polic II. When the series was revamped and shown together with Superman: The Animated Series, the character was voiced by Jeffrey Combs. In the 2005 film Batman Begins and its sequels The Dark Knight and The Dark Knight Rises, he was portrayed by Cillian Murphy.